Breathable Lumen to launch in the UK
Welcome to issue Personalised nutrition update issue nr.33
This review aimed to “measure the levels of 1,251 metabolites in serum samples from a unique and deeply phenotyped healthy human cohort of 491 individuals”. In the study “applied machine-learning algorithms to predict metabolite levels in held-out individuals on the basis of host genetics, gut microbiome, clinical parameters, diet, lifestyle and anthropometric measurements, and obtained statistically significant predictions for more than 76% of the profiled metabolites”. The results suggest that “Diet and microbiome had the strongest predictive power, and each explained hundreds of metabolites—in some cases, explaining more than 50% of the observed variance (…)”
This global study included around 158 countries, included dietary data from the Global Dietary Databases of the United Nations and coronavirus disease statistics from the World Health Organization (WHO). It aimed to “explore the relation of dietary factors with global infection and mortality rates of COVID-19”. The results have shown that: “(…) the higher intake of fruits and sugar-sweetened beverages had a positive effect on infection and mortality rates by COVID-19, respectively. In contrast, the higher intake of beans and legumes had a negative effect on both increasing infection and mortality rates”.
This DuPont review provides “an overview of the existing studies that have examined the reciprocal interactions between physical activity and gut microbiota”. It evaluates “the clinical evidence that supports the effects of probiotics on physical performance, post-exercise recovery, and cognitive outcomes among athletes”. It “discusses the mechanisms of action through which probiotics affect exercise outcomes”. The review quotes the most studied probiotics in sports nutrition: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Lactipantibacillus plantarum TWK10, L. acidophilus, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus, Lacticaseibacillus casei, L. plantarum, Limosilactobacillus fermentum, Bifidobacterium lactis, B.breve, B. bifidum, and Streptococcus thermophilus.
A study carried out by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) aimed to investigate “the dietary intake, basic laboratory parameters, vitamin status, and trace-element status of 36 vegans and 36 persons on an omnivorous diet”. The results show: “Nearly all the vegans and one-third of the persons on a mixed diet had consumed supplements in the previous 4 weeks. Vegans and non-vegans had similar energy intake but differed in the intake of both macronutrients (e.g., dietary fiber) and micronutrients (e.g., vitamins B12, B2, D, E, and K, as well as folate, iodine, and iron). There were no intergroup differences in the biomarkers of vitamin B12, vitamin D, or iron status. The ferritin values and blood counts indicated iron deficiency in four vegans and three non-vegans. Measurements in 24-hour urine samples revealed lower calcium excretion and markedly lower iodine excretion in vegans compared to non-vegans; in one-third of the vegans, iodine excretion was lower than the WHO threshold value (<20 µg/L) for severe iodine deficiency”. To conclude: “Vitamin B12 status was similarly good in vegans and non-vegans, even though the vegans consumed very little dietary B12. This may be due to the high rate of supplementation. The findings imply a need to also ensure adequate iodine intake in the population, especially among persons on a vegan diet”.
Self-reported health without clinically measurable benefits among adult users of multivitamin and multimineral supplements: a cross-sectional study
This study asked 21,603 US adults about their use of complementary medicine. It aimed “to compare self-reported and clinically measurable health outcomes among MVM (multivitamin and multimineral) users and non-users”. The questionnaires data showed: “Around 4933 individuals said they regularly took multivitamin/ mineral supplements compared to 16 670 respondents, who said they didn’t”. The “regular multivitamin/ mineral supplement users reported 30% better overall health than those who didn’t take them”. To conclude: “These results suggest that widespread use of multivitamins in adults may be a result of individuals’ positive expectation that multivitamin use leads to better health outcomes”.